How Do Pitchers Throw Different Types of Pitches?

The game of baseball is played out as duel between the pitcher and the

batter. The pitcher will try to throw a ball so that the batter doesn't hit it.

How does the pitcher accomplish this?

The pitcher has to throw the ball inside a target of 20”x23”x17” box such

that even if the hitter hits the ball, he won't be able get a clear hit. To

achieve that goal, the pitcher uses various pitches, such as the curve ball,

sinker, slider, or fast ball.

As the pitcher releases the ball, the grip will put a spin on the ball. What

happens to the ball depends on what spin was put on it. What causes the

ball to curve, slide or stay in a strait pattern? This all has to do with the fact

that there is drag force, or air resistance. A curve ball is created when a ball

is spinning.

The faster flowing air under the ball creates less pressure,

which forces the ball to dive or break. Baseball would be a dull game without

drag force because there would be no curves, sliders, or knuckle balls.

So what does this force do to the ball? What happens to the ball once it

is released is actually called the Magnus effect. For a spinning ball, the

stitches on the ball will cause pressure on one side to be less than on its

opposite side. This will force the ball to move faster on one side than the

other and will force the ball to “curve.” This is the Magnus Effect.

Origin of the Magnus force for a ball of radius , moving with speed , and

spinning with angular velocity about an axis perpendicular to its direction

of motion.

The conventional classification of baseball pitches is in terms of the

direction of the ball's axis of spin.

A “slider” is thrown such that its axis of rotation points vertically upward,

which is the direction of spin generated by the natural clockwise rotation of

a right-handed pitcher's wrist. The Magnus force causes the ball to curve

sideways, away from a right-handed hitter.

The “curveball” is thrown such that its axis of rotation, as seen by the

hitter, points upwards, but also tilts to the right. The Magnus force acting

on a curveball causes the ball to deviate both sideways and downwards.

Thus, although a curveball usually doesn't move laterally as far as a slider,

it dips very rapidly--which makes it difficult to hit.

A pitch that curves towards a hitter is harder to hit than one that curves

away. It is actually possible for a right-handed pitcher to throw an inward

curving pitch to a right-handed hitter. Such a pitch is known as a “screwball.

” The ball is thrown such that its axis of rotation, as seen by the hitter,

points upwards and tilts to the left. The pitch dips rapidly, like a curveball,

but has a sideways displacement in the opposite* *direction to normal.

Probably the most effective pitch in baseball is the “fastball.” The Magnus

force acting on a fastball has a large upward component, slowing the ball's

rate of fall. The ball is thrown such that its axis of rotation, as seen by the

hitter, points downwards and tilts to the left.

The equation is as follows :

FMagnus Force = KwVCv

where:

FMagnus Force is the Magnus Force

K is the Magnus Coefficient

w is the spin frequency measured in rpm

V is the velocity of the ball in mph

Cv is the drag coefficient